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Shelves: ebook, non-fiction, science . a successful life insurance salesman, he started a career as a speaker and trainer in sales and latterly in body language. Free e-books for your trip to Indonesia. 'Enjoying Indonesia' helps you to understand the Indonesian mindset, our smiles and body language. Did you know. Editorial Reviews. From the Inside Flap. About the Author As any seasoned traveler knows, the ability to communicate in the language of the country you are visiting makes a very big difference in the experiences you.
The showing of "silent bared teeth", which resembles the human smile, is generally a sign of submission and consciously performed by the inferior animal or the superior in order to encourage the low-power partner. In contrast, joyful, spontaneous laughing with a "relaxed open mouth" is known as the "play face".
This leads to the conclusion that smiling is not a universal sign of positive emotion, but rather a socially learned action paragraph: Preuschoft and van Hooff, , f. The aspect of power relations is further discussed in point 5. Although it is assumed that smiling is an innate action, for even embryos smile in the womb and blind babies smile when sleeping or hearing a human voice Gutman , there is strong evidence that smiling, to a large extent, is a product of culture.
Within the first hours, new-borns differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar and after a few weeks are able to imitate facial expressions Goldschmidt, , p. The mirroring of the mother's smile implies no emotional involvement, but rather is a sign of "affect hunger", which means that the infant learned that smiling evokes positive feedback in its culture Ibid. The innate mirroring of positive and negative expressions is called "Facial Feedback Hypothesis" and largely taken advantage of by the advertising industry "Ten Ways", Smiling in different cultures Although body language is a universal cultural phenomenon, the cues to understanding it are not universal and are therefore culture-bound Bernstein, Especially with the case of facial expressions such as smiling, it is culturally dependent whether smiles are expressed or masked Weinberg and Konert, Therefore, it is inconsiderate of Motsumoto as cited in Pogosyan, to assume that smiling is always a safe and positive sign in intercultural communication.
Keeping in mind that a mother's behaviour is "in accordance with local norms and cultural expectations" Goldschmidt, , p. For instance, it is part of Sebei culture to maintain emotional detachment.
Consequently, Sebei mothers rarely smile at their children Ibid. Another rather extreme culture-bound example is the display of a smile in moments of loss, i.
Furthermore, it is important to keep in mind that even within a "WEIRD"-culture, there are personal differences among individuals, for even Darwin mentioned "the large class of idiots who are Therefore, it is of interest to focus on "Non-WEIRD" and high-context cultures in the following paragraphs, in which smiling often has a negative connotation.
Whereas in the USA it is considered polite and friendly to greet anyone with a smile N. Therefore, Russians tend to maintain serious faces, even in photographs Khazan, According to Krys , smiling is often closely linked to high uncertainty-avoidance.
Her study showed the following results: Countries like Japan, Russia and France rated the intelligence of smiling people low, whereas par- tidpants from Germany, China and the UK rated it high. The honesty of a smiling person was denied in e. The important thing to understand about classical conditioning, is that we apply an arbitrary external stimulus to a specific biological reaction which remains the same reaction, basically.
It might sound a bit odd, but we all acquire such conditions throughout our lives, without any conscious will or thought. For example, almost anyone who saw enough TV - could associate a flashing red light with danger - you need to escape or to be on alert!
Another more devious example is how advertisements exploit such mechanism in order to instill certain allure or attraction to their products by using sex or other common desires.
But, in your mind, subconsciously you associated the drink with sex. When you see that product at the store, it instills that feeling of attraction and it causes you to act upon that impulse from the visual image in your head. So, if you see enough ads - and most of them about sex or attraction, you will learn to associate those specific brands with the feeling of attraction. Many psychologist relate this behavior as a reminiscence to suckling.
When you were a baby, your mother held you and fed you, you felt comfortable and safe in her arms. Therefore the action of suckling is associated with nutrition and pleasure.
But later in life, when babies are weaned of suckling, many transfer this behavior to the thumb, which serves as a substitute because the action of sucking retains its association with the emotions of security and warmth. Lack of eye contact can also indicate a lack of confidence and interest, which you never want to communicate in a business setting. Looking downas you talk makes it seem like you lack confidence or are self-conscious, causing your words to lose their effect.
Sustained eye contact, on the other hand, communicates confidence, leadership, strength, and intelligence. While it is possible to be engaged without direct, constant eye contact, complete negligence will clearly have negative effects on your professional relationships.
The way we break contact sends a message, too. Glancing down communicates submission, while looking to the side projects confidence. Rolling your eyes is a fail-proof way to communicate lack of respect.